吉祥天母(佛教护法)

Shri Devi (Buddhist Protector) - Magzor Gyalmo

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编号:HAR105

中文名称:吉祥天母(佛教护法)

英文名称: Shri Devi (Buddhist Protector) - Magzor Gyalmo

尺幅:83.82x57.79cm (33x22.75in)

类别:黑卡

材质:棉布

题材:人物

收藏:Shelley & Donald Rubin

地域:藏中

年份:18世纪(1700 - 1799)

传承:格鲁

内容:

吉祥天母 之 玛佐嘉摩(Shri Devi,Magzor Gyalmo),被认为是辩才天女(Sarasvati)的忿怒化身,在印度教和佛教中普遍流行。

玛左嘉摩(Magzor Gyalmo)是吉祥天母的二十一种主要化身之一,也是与西藏最著名的纳木错圣湖有关的护法神之一。Mag是“战争“的意思,zor是一种念怒仪轨,意指玛左嘉摩通常在密续仪轨用作”息“力。她与达赖活佛有很深的联系,一世达赖喇嘛曾经将她当作自己的个人护法神,二世达赖喇嘛则把他的法座恰催寺建在她的湖泊下游。事实上,二世达赖喇嘛在成年后仍一直坚持每天诵持其真言一万遍。他是在16岁完成了首次闭关,在此次闭关中,他经历了改变其一生的观想体验和证悟。之后开始进行这一修持,并一直持续到其圆寂之日,历时近50年。

“…吉祥天母,骑着骡子,呈蓝黑色身,一面二臂,露出獠牙,咬着一具尸体。她有三只圆圆的红眼睛,前额皱着眉头,棕色的头发随着火焰的散发向上流动。右耳装饰有一条毒蛇,左边有一只狮子,戴着五骷髅冠和一条50个鲜血淋淋人头的项链。…穿着虎皮的下装,装饰着一条蛇腰带和项链璎珞等。右手拿着标志金刚杵的短橛。左手在心脏位置拿着充盈着鲜血的颅碗。…在脐轮之上是太阳,在头顶上是新月; 头顶上方是个孔雀宝冠。”

在顶部的中心是Je Drub Khang Rinchen(1641-1713),右手抬起到心脏位置,左手拿着经书,坐在一个粉红色的莲花座上。右边是Khardo Rinchen(1672 - 1749),他右手拿着一个黑色的钵碗,左手延伸到膝盖上。再右边的是Ponlob Puntsog Gyatso(17世纪)他右手举起,左手在心脏位置持经书。在中央人物的左边,是Gyalwa Ngapa Chenpo,第5世达赖喇嘛(1617 - 1682),由他特色的小胡子以及在腰带下的金刚镢而辨认。他右手握着一朵白色莲花在右肩上绽放,左手抱着一个金色的法轮。在最左边的是Panchen Lobzang Yeshe(1663 - 1737),班禅二世,在右膝上拿着一个钵碗,用左手在心脏位置持祝福的手印。五名教师都穿着橙色的僧侣长袍,戴着格鲁派尖顶的黄色帽子。

在唐卡的中部,是她的两位主要侍从和眷属们。左边是一个蓝色空行母,赤身,面如海龙,为她擒住缰绳。右边是一个暗红色的空行母,面如雪狮,紧随其后。前者象征着玛左嘉摩与河流和大海中的一切生物都有联系,后者则象征着她控制陆地和高山的能力。两者都以空行母形相显现,说明他们也都有控制空间的能力。这样一来,上、中、下三界都在她们的势力范围之内。

在底部的中心是藏族山神长寿五姐妹(Tseringma),为首的本尊骑在一只蓝色的雪狮上,旁边是她的四个姐妹。她肤色白色,年轻而美丽,右手持金刚杵。左手握着一个金色的宝瓶。在四周,四个姐妹各自拿着自己的象征法器,骑着不同的动物坐骑。

以上译自Himalayanart.org

Donor Inscription Information: An inscription on the back gives the names of four donors; Purbu Chog Ngagwang Champa (1682-1762 [P108]), Lobzang Dargye, Champa Yeshe and Lobzang Trinle. Ngagwang Champa is the principal donor and the verse on the back was written by him. A copy of the verse can be found in his collected writings (vol.4, page 319) along with dedicatory inscriptions for six other paintings which comprise a set of seven Gelug protector deities. Two of the three accompanying names are only tentatively identified as Lobzang Dargye the 49th Ganden Tripa (1662-1723 [P2758]) and Lobzang Trinle (1697-1761). The other six compositions from the set list Ngagwang Champa first in each case but the following three names are all different one painting from the other. (Collected Works phur bu lcog nag dbang byams pa w1229, 4 volumes. New Delhi, 1973).

Teachers of the Zhang, Mu and Sakya Lineages: Vajradhara, [Guhyapati Varapani], Pandita Lawa Marpo, [Pandita Sherab Salwa], Che Jungne Zangpo, Nub Gyalwa Yeshe, Shang Chogdru Sherab Lama, Se Sangha Bhadra, Se Palchen Odpo, Se Shang Dode Tsemo, Shang Dingriwa Nyima Drag, Tenzangwa Rinchen Namgyal, Samlingpa Sanggye Jungwa, Jamyang Khonton Tugje Rinchen, Jangsem Rinchen Gonpo, Choje Nyima Shenyen, Choje Konchog Pal Zangpo, Jetsun Jamyang Gonpo, Bodongpa Jamyang Raltri, Namkha Monlam, Je Namkhai Nyingpo, Je Namkha Gyaltsen, Chagyurwa Sonam Sengge, Yang Gonpa Palden Tashi, Ngag Chang Kunga Rinchen, Ngorchen Konchog Palden, Sharchen Champa Kunga Tashi, Sharchen Sherab Jungne, Sharpa Yeshe Zangpo, Kedrub Sanggye Puntsog.

Biographical Details:

Je Drub Khang Rinchen Khardo Rinchen Ponlob Puntsog Gyatso

5th Dalai Lama, Ngagwang Lobzang Gyatso 2nd Panchen Lama, Lobzang Yeshe

Purbu Chog Ngagwang Champa

Another Painting From the Same Set:

This painting belongs to a set of seven paintings. A second painting from the set belongs to the Essen collection now in the Museum der Kulturen, Basel, Switzerland. A third painting depicting Vaishravana can be found in the Netherlands in a private collection.

Die Gotter des Himalaya. Buddhistische Kunst Tibets. (2 Volumes). Die Sammlung Gerd-Wolfgang Essen. Prestel-Verlag: Munchen, 1989.

Volume 1, page 227-228, Begtse Abb. S. 227 (beg-rtse) Tibet, 19. Jh.; 85x58 cm (- II-407)

Tibet: Buddhas, Gods, Saints. Museum der Kulturen Basel, Switzerland. Edited by Clara B. Wilpert. In collaboration with Maria Angela Algar. With a Foreword by H.H. the Dalai Lama. Prestel Verlag: Munich-London-New York, 2001.

Page 142, Begtse. 46 a, Tibet, 19. Jh. Thangka, Leimtempera auf Stoff, 85x58 cm IId 12667, Essen I-140

The Essen painting is of the protector Begtse Chen with retinue. At the top center is the Buddha Amitabha with two lamas on the right, Jetsunpa and Sera Kunkyenpa. On the left side are the two Dalai Lamas, Gyalwa Gendun Gyatso and Gyalwa Sonam Gyatso.

Jeff Watt 4-2004

Numbered Image:

1. Shri Devi, Magzor Gyalmo
2. Makaramukha, attendant
3. Simhamukha, attendant
4. Shri Devi, Retinue Figure
5. Shri Devi, Retinue Figure
6. Shri Devi, Retinue Figure
7. Shri Devi, Retinue Figure
8. Je Drubkang Rinchen (1641-1713)
9. Kardo Rinchen (1672-1749)
10. 5th Dalai Lama, Ngagwang Lobzang Gyatso (1617-1682) 
11. Ponlob Puntsog Gyatso (17th century)
12. 2nd Panchen Lama, Lobzang Yeshe (1663-1737)
13. Tseringma (with Four Sisters), Mountain Goddess
14. Chopen Drinzangma, Mountain Goddess
15. Tekar Drozangma, Mountain Goddess
16. Ting gyi Shal Zangma, Mountain Goddess
17. Miyo Lozangma, Mountain Goddess

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