十一面观音坛城

Mandala of Avalokiteshvara (Bodhisattva & Buddhist Deity) - Namka Gyalpo (Gaganaraja)

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编号:HAR16

中文名称:十一面观音坛城

英文名称: Mandala of Avalokiteshvara (Bodhisattva & Buddhist Deity) - Namka Gyalpo (Gaganaraja)

尺幅:66.04x62.87cm (26x24.75in)

类别:彩唐

材质:棉布

题材:坛城

收藏:Rubin Museum of Art

地域:西藏

年份:16世纪(1500 - 1599)

传承:不确定

内容:

十一面观音坛城(Avalokiteshvara, Ekadashamukha Mandala)(藏语:chen re zi,shal chu chig kyil khor。英语:注视世界的十一面部主的循环):被四角的四个伟大非凡的神祇包围着。
    ​    ​
    ​    ​在曼陀罗的中心是十一面观音(Avalokiteshvara),呈寂静相,自下向上三面一组,共三组9面,第10张脸是愤怒相,顶部的脸是阿弥陀佛(buddha Amitabha)。每个脸都有两只眼睛,长长的黑头发流过肩膀。 8只手,第一对手在心脏位置拿着一个珍贵的宝石。向旁边延伸的三只右手分别持施愿印,拿着一个法轮和一串水晶念珠。左边三只手分别拿着一个水壶,一把弓箭和一朵莲花。每一张脸都装饰着一个皇冠和耳环。项链和手镯装饰在脖子和四肢上,下半身包裹着裙子。他的两条腿一起站在莲花上,头上围绕着头光的光环。

    ​    ​观音(Avalokiteshvara)是西藏的守护神,以各种各样寂静相或愤怒相出现,并且围绕着许多神祇在一个大的坛城上。作为一个普遍的象征,他体现了十方三世所有佛陀的慈悲。他这十一面的站立形式和著名的比丘尼Kashmir, Lakshmi密切相关,其推广一个将2天净化和斋戒仪式合并的冥想仪轨。然而,许多坛城及许多神祇,例如这个坛城,是由尊者龙树(Acharya Nagarjuna)引入印度佛教。尊者阿底峡(Lord Atisha)和Rinchen Zangpo等人在西藏进行了推广。

    ​    ​历史:一次观音(Avalokiteshvara)发愿,他要提升自我利益的想法,头分成10个部分,身体为1000份。在不断目睹众生在各种生存状态中的苦难之后,他很失望,产生了寻求自己大乐的念头。在那个瞬间头部和身体破碎。他呼唤阿弥陀佛(buddha Amitabha),佛陀示现,并且说了鼓励的话。阿弥陀佛收集10个头构建了10面--代表10个完美。 他收集了1000块身体,构造另外1000只手,每个手掌上有一只眼睛--代表千万亿劫诸佛佛。 最后,他把自己的头放在冠上 - 照亮整个三界宇宙。

issland 译自 himalayanart.org
2017/2/4

【原文】

Avalokiteshvara, Ekadashamukha Mandala (Tibetan: chen re zi, shal chu chig kyil khor. English: the Circle of the Eleven Faced Lord Gazing on the World): surrounded by the four great mundane gods of the world placed in the four corners.

At the center of the mandala is Avalokiteshvara, peaceful in appearance, with eleven faces rising upward in groups of three, the 10th is wrathful and the face at the top is that of the buddha Amitabha. Each face has two eyes and long black hair flows across the shoulders. With 8 hands the first pair at the heart hold a precious jewel. The three right hands extended to the side are in the mudra of generosity, holding a Dharma wheel and a crystal prayer bead mala. The three on the left hold a water flask, a bow and arrow and a lotus blossom. Each face is adorned with a crown and earrings. Necklaces and bracelets adorn the neck and limbs and the lower body is wrapped with a skirt. Having the two legs together he stands atop a lotus flower surrounded by a nimbus and a smaller aureola about the heads.

The bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara is the patron deity of Tibet and appears in a variety of forms both peacefulwrathful and in large mandalas surrounded by numerous deities. As a universal symbol he embodies the compassion of all buddhas of the ten directions and three times. In the standing form with 11 faces he is closely associated with the famous bhikshuni (nun) of Kashmir, Lakshmi (Tib.: Ani Palmo), who popularized a meditation practice incorporating a 2 day purification and fasting ritual. However in a large mandala with many deities such as this it was the Acharya Nagarjuna that was responsible for its introduction into Indian Buddhism. Lord Atisha, Rinchen Zangpo and others popularized this practice throughout Tibet.

History: At one time the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara made a promise that should he give rise to thoughts of self benefit may the head break into 10 pieces and the body into 1000. After continuously witnessing the misery of beings in various states of existence, discouraged, he gave rise to thoughts of seeking only his own happiness. At that very instant the head and body shattered. Calling out to Amitabha, the buddha came forth and spoke words of encouragement. Gathering up the 10 pieces of the head Amitabha constructed 10 faces - representing the 10 perfections. Gathering the 1000 pieces of the body he constructed another with 1000 hands each with an eye on the palm - representing the 1000 buddhas of the Golden Aeon. Finally he placed a duplicate of his own head at the crown - illuminating the entire threefold universe.

Jeff Watt 4-2001

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